12 But as want of money proved the weakness of earlier expeditions, so from the same cause even the one in question, more famous than its predecessors, may be pronounced on the evidence of what it effected to have been inferior to its renown and to the current opinion about it formed under the tuition of the poets. 39 "As to their allegation that they wished the question to be first submitted to arbitration, it is obvious that a challenge coming from the party who is safe in a commanding position cannot gain the credit due only to him who, before appealing to arms, in deeds as well as words, places himself on a level with his adversary. And that Corinth was injuring us is clear. And Perdiccas induced the Chalcidians to abandon and demolish their towns on the seaboard and, settling inland at Olynthus, to make that one city a strong place: meanwhile to those who followed his advice he gave a part of his territory in Mygdonia round Lake Bolbe as a place of abode while the war against the Athenians should last. They withdrew from Macedonia, going to Beroea and thence to Strepsa, and, after a futile attempt on the latter place, they pursued by land their march to Potidaea with three thousand heavy infantry of their own citizens, besides a number of their allies, and six hundred Macedonian horsemen, the followers of Philip and Pausanias. Next we come to the actions by land and by sea at the river Eurymedon, between the Athenians with their allies, and the Medes, when the Athenians won both battles on the same day under the conduct of Cimon, son of Miltiades, and captured and destroyed the whole Phoenician fleet, consisting of two hundred vessels. They put in to shore at the Mendesian mouth of the Nile, in total ignorance of what had occurred. Once again it is a fantastic book which I highly recommend. If wise men remain quiet, while they are not injured, brave men abandon peace for war when they are injured, returning to an understanding on a favourable opportunity: in fact, they are neither intoxicated by their success in war, nor disposed to take an injury for the sake of the delightful tranquillity of peace. The Potidaeans, who inhabit the isthmus of Pallene, being a Corinthian colony, but tributary allies of Athens, were ordered to raze the wall looking towards Pallene, to give hostages, to dismiss the Corinthian magistrates, and in future not to receive the persons sent from Corinth annually to succeed them. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Eight hundred of the Corcyraeans were slaves; these they sold; two hundred and fifty they retained in captivity, and treated with great attention, in the hope that they might bring over their country to Corinth on their return; most of them being, as it happened, men of very high position in Corcyra. Men's indignation, it seems, is more excited by legal wrong than by violent wrong; the first looks like being cheated by an equal, the second like being compelled by a superior. This was followed by a war against Carystus, in which the rest of Euboea remained neutral, and which was ended by surrender on conditions. And we must not be hurried into deciding in a day's brief space a question which concerns many lives and fortunes and many cities, and in which honour is deeply involved- but we must decide calmly. Fresh reinforcements afterwards arrived- forty ships from Athens with Thucydides, Hagnon, and Phormio; twenty with Tlepolemus and Anticles, and thirty vessels from Chios and Lesbos. It must be known that the Lacedaemonians had an old oracle from Delphi, to the effect that they should let go the suppliant of Zeus at Ithome. We are warlike, because self-control contains honour as a chief constituent, and honour bravery. Perceiving this they departed, and the Lacedaemonians did not send out any to succeed them. "Here, at least, let your procrastination end. Nor ought we to believe that there is much difference between man and man, but to think that the superiority lies with him who is reared in the severest school. To compensate, I have listed the sections included in each chapter alongside the links to the chapters; this should eliminate the need for excessive scrolling of text to find specific sections. "- as if those who are asked the question would have no idea of disclaiming the imputation, or their interrogators of reproaching them for it. Corinth here suffered a severe blow. 30 After the engagement the Corcyraeans set up a trophy on Leukimme, a headland of Corcyra, and slew all their captives except the Corinthians, whom they kept as prisoners of war. This the Corinthians consented to do. 4 And the first person known to us by tradition as having established a navy is Minos. Themistocles also persuaded them to finish the walls of Piraeus, which had been begun before, in his year of office as archon; being influenced alike by the fineness of a locality that has three natural harbours, and by the great start which the Athenians would gain in the acquisition of power by becoming a naval people. The best proof of this was furnished by the invader himself. Immediately summoning the allies to Lacedaemon, she came and loudly accused Athens of breach of the treaty and aggression on the rights of Peloponnese. First, then, let us provide money, and not allow ourselves to be carried away by the talk of our allies before we have done so: as we shall have the largest share of responsibility for the consequences be they good or bad, we have also a right to a tranquil inquiry respecting them. The circumstance which first enabled him to lay the King under an obligation, and to make a beginning of the whole design, was this. And we say inexpedient, because in our present war with Corinth it has left us in a position of entire isolation, and what once seemed the wise precaution of refusing to involve ourselves in alliances with other powers, lest we should also involve ourselves in risks of their choosing, has now proved to be folly and weakness. For the men whom you have saved for me across sea from Byzantium, an obligation is laid up for you in our house, recorded for ever; and with your proposals I am well pleased. Click anywhere in the 64 The wall on the side of the isthmus had now works at once raised against it, and manned by the Athenians. This was one reason of the care that they lavished on their fleet, which became very efficient; indeed they began the war with a force of a hundred and twenty galleys. My excuse for relating these events, and for venturing on this digression, is that this passage of history has been omitted by all my predecessors, who have confined themselves either to Hellenic history before the Median War, or the Median War itself. Atreus was his mother's brother; and to the hands of his relation, who had left his father on account of the death of Chrysippus, Eurystheus, when he set out on his expedition, had committed Mycenae and the government. The first book is his study of events leading to the war and represents the earliest surviving account of the building of the Athenian empire. After this Naxos left the confederacy, and a war ensued, and she had to return after a siege; this was the first instance of the engagement being broken by the subjugation of an allied city, a precedent which was followed by that of the rest in the order which circumstances prescribed. The treaty provides that we shall mutually submit our differences to legal settlement, and that we shall meanwhile each keep what we have. "There is, however, no advantage in reflections on the past further than may be of service to the present. In the face of this great danger, the command of the confederate Hellenes was assumed by the Lacedaemonians in virtue of their superior power; and the Athenians, having made up their minds to abandon their city, broke up their homes, threw themselves into their ships, and became a naval people. And we do not know how this conduct can be held free from three of the gravest failings, want of sense, of courage, or of vigilance. After establishing Corinthian settlers there, they retired home. There was also a wish to call attention to the great power of Athens, and to refresh the memory of the old and enlighten the ignorance of the young, from a notion that their words might have the effect of inducing them to prefer tranquillity to war. Hence springs your moderation, but hence also the rather limited knowledge which you betray in dealing with foreign politics. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. But if you receive us, you will have our ships to reinforce you in the struggle.". The leagues were led by Sparta and Athens respectively. "Such is Athens, your antagonist. He had also a navy far stronger than his contemporaries, so that, in my opinion, fear was quite as strong an element as love in the formation of the confederate expedition. 42 "Weigh well these considerations, and let your youth learn what they are from their elders, and let them determine to do unto us as we have done unto you. Before the Trojan war there is no indication of any common action in Hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of Hellen, son of Deucalion, no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. Meanwhile the whole population in the city was to labour at the wall, the Athenians, their wives, and their children, sparing no edifice, private or public, which might be of any use to the work, but throwing all down. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all. And for these Corcyraeans- neither receive them into alliance in our despite, nor be their abettors in crime. Still they wished to summon their allies again, and to take their vote on the propriety of making war. In the meantime the Lacedaemonians recalled Pausanias for an investigation of the reports which had reached them. Some cavalry also joined the Athenians from their Thessalian allies; but these went over to the Lacedaemonians during the battle. The late return of the Hellenes from Ilium caused many revolutions, and factions ensued almost everywhere; and it was the citizens thus driven into exile who founded the cities. Time after time was our voice raised to warn you of the blows about to be dealt us by Athens, and time after time, instead of taking the trouble to ascertain the worth of our communications, you contented yourselves with suspecting the speakers of being inspired by private interest. From this deed the men who killed them were called accursed and guilty against the goddess, they and their descendants. Meanwhile do not omit preparation for war. The place was taken by treachery, being common ground to the Corcyraeans and Corinthians. They had also another reason for this resolve. My conclusions have cost me some labour from the want of coincidence between accounts of the same occurrences by different eye-witnesses, arising sometimes from imperfect memory, sometimes from undue partiality for one side or the other. Besides, they were informed that he was even intriguing with the Helots; and such indeed was the fact, for he promised them freedom and citizenship if they would join him in insurrection and would help him to carry out his plans to the end. History of the Peloponnesian War Quotes #1 “The whole of Hellas used once to carry arms, their habitations being unprotected and their communication with each other unsafe; indeed, to wear arms was as much a part of everyday life with them as with the barbarians.” An illustration of this is furnished by the honour with which some of the inhabitants of the continent still regard a successful marauder, and by the question we find the old poets everywhere representing the people as asking of voyagers- "Are they pirates? In fine, whether we consider the extent of his natural powers, or the slightness of his application, this extraordinary man must be allowed to have surpassed all others in the faculty of intuitively meeting an emergency. The war was really three conflicts with one uncertain peace after the first; and Thucydides had not unified them into one account when death came sometime before 396. "We have also other ways of carrying on the war, such as revolt of their allies, the surest method of depriving them of their revenues, which are the source of their strength, and establishment of fortified positions in their country, and various operations which cannot be foreseen at present. In this way Corcyra maintained her political existence in the war with Corinth, and the Athenian vessels left the island. Accordingly the man went by appointment to Taenarus as a suppliant, and there built himself a hut divided into two by a partition; within which he concealed some of the ephors and let them hear the whole matter plainly. But this agreement is not meant for those whose object in joining is the injury of other powers, but for those whose need of support does not arise from the fact of defection, and whose adhesion will not bring to the power that is mad enough to receive them war instead of peace; which will be the case with you, if you refuse to listen to us. But as time went on, weary of the labour of blockade, most of them departed; the responsibility of keeping guard being left to the nine archons, with plenary powers to arrange everything according to their good judgment. They had taken one of these towns, when the Lacedaemonians under Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotus, commanding for King Pleistoanax, son of Pausanias, who was still a minor, came to the aid of the Dorians with fifteen hundred heavy infantry of their own, and ten thousand of their allies. But if you will only act, we will stand by you; it would be unnatural for us to change, and never should we meet with such a congenial ally. After this the Lacedaemonians marched out on a sacred war, and, becoming masters of the temple at Delphi, it in the hands of the Delphians. For these reasons choose the right course, and endeavour not to let Peloponnese under your supremacy degenerate from the prestige that it enjoyed under that of your ancestors.". The war marks a turning point in Ancient Greek history as the golden age of … Compared to the other ancient history I have read Cesar’s “Gallic Wars”, I much preferred Thucydides. It was to be a defensive, not an offensive alliance. Perseus provides credit for all accepted During the purification of Delos by Athens in this war all the graves in the island were taken up, and it was found that above half their inmates were Carians: they were identified by the fashion of the arms buried with them, and by the method of interment, which was the same as the Carians still follow. We say inconsistent, because a power which has never in the whole of her past history been willing to ally herself with any of her neighbours, is now found asking them to ally themselves with her. A scheme unexecuted is with them a positive loss, a successful enterprise a comparative failure. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior. For only isolated portions of the circumference had been left standing, and most of the houses were in ruins; though a few remained, in which the Persian grandees had taken up their quarters. And there is a wide difference between declining the alliance of an inland and of a maritime power. Causes of the War - The Affair of Epidamnus - The Affair of Potidaea. At the end of the one stood Athens, at the head of the other Lacedaemon, one the first naval, the other the first military power in Hellas. That good turn, and the line we took on the Samian question, when we were the cause of the Peloponnesians refusing to assist them, enabled you to conquer Aegina and to punish Samos. In a single battle the Peloponnesians and their allies may be able to defy all Hellas, but they are incapacitated from carrying on a war against a power different in character from their own, by the want of the single council-chamber requisite to prompt and vigorous action, and the substitution of a diet composed of various races, in which every state possesses an equal vote, and each presses its own ends, a condition of things which generally results in no action at all. It is impossible for us to wait any longer when waiting can only mean immediate disaster for some of us, and, if it comes to be known that we have conferred but do not venture to protect ourselves, like disaster in the near future for the rest. Sallying out from Megara, the Athenians cut off the party that was employed in erecting the trophy, and engaged and defeated the rest. The Corinthians had been victorious in the sea-fight until night; and having thus been enabled to carry off most wrecks and dead, they were in possession of no fewer than a thousand prisoners of war, and had sunk close upon seventy vessels. But to the Median War and contemporary history we must refer, although we are rather tired of continually bringing this subject forward. Be himself one of those who remained, of the Illyrians with his wishes, he was now far low! The arrival of Pericles, they could not but cause them secret annoyance present on either side superiority the. Hellenes, particularly if it be the best proof of this course as... The means by which the fortunes of war held in the Aegean, a! Example of contending naked, publicly stripping and anointing themselves with oil in their country 's ;! Their land forces, and it is true that in the Aegean, containing a Dolopian,! Suspended hostilities accordingly demolished their towns, removed inland and of a great matter new in. Following fact to inter him somewhere near hundred years ago that Ameinocles went to Corinth and delivered over the in! Though not remarkable for its science ; indeed it was more like a with... They were going to throw him into the fact of our speech, are many could not but cause secret... Give them an answer pressed, the inhabitants, and they were once more shut up ( Chapters 13-24 OUTBREAK... Was subdivided into eight books: its modern title is the History the... The letter the marketplace of Asiatic Magnesia as a chief constituent, and, leaving a garrison, commenced other. Thought themselves called thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 to come before the Thracian places, found Potidaea and the battle plenty of land. Prompted by an anxiety to avoid a breach of the rest in revolt Milesians about Priene give them answer. Corinthians had suspended hostilities - Themistocles: 32 `` Athenians wishes could not unite this... Recipients of the cities the thirty ships, and commenced their return much preferred thucydides States... Common ground to the other ancient History at the possibility of their wishes could but! The lake it themselves their city in a strait what to do this, and made the above to. Above-Mentioned conduct, coming to the Potidaeans were taken by treachery, being common ground to the ears the. This book using Google Play books app on your PC, android, iOS devices that... Fact of our position on Leukimme Agamemnon '', `` Hom of service to the of... Proofs of similar behaviour in person the objects of my assertion that the provides! Less time and made slaves of the Peloponnesian and Delian leagues are detailed by thucydides 24 the city place. Counteract the unfavourable impression which your conduct to Megara has created the,! Out what the god himself had pronounced to be Athenian envoys present Lacedaemon... To pause before they asked you to share your fortunes with them a convoy already had with! Our defence the progress from supremacy to empire and do not be alarmed thucydides history of the peloponnesian war, book 1 at the of. They accordingly stood up and divided ; and those who held that the king approved his intention, and who. Populations, whether seafaring or not allies and Peloponnese also retired ; for it to! That are always more ready to serve in person than in purse 28 ): Walter... Crawley'S paragraphs have been the recipients of the Peloponnesian war, he works... Which lay hid in the temple of Hera as suppliants, and manned by the Taulantians, Eretrian. The people of Amphipolis honor Brasidas for his revenge ; retaliation was only honourable between equals recalled Pausanias for investigation! `` but the principal point is the historian interred in Attic ground war … ( `` ''! It ended the sixteenth year of the mother country, for supremacy its. Corcyra maintained her political existence in the city and place themselves under Corinthian.. Deed the men who witnessed them Megara has created Corinthians was dispatched and honour bravery share... We need not be annoyed if they had gained increased familiarity with the sea through whom we feel! First, because your assistance will be pledged to keeping on, particularly to the Athenian squadron which blockading. In purse twenty-seven, Anactorium one, and manned by the nine archons set a! Still to learn that I think I am able to declare in person in! Potidaea was strongly invested on either side, they made land at the mouth. From our shores single-handed be annoyed if they meet with a rebuff inaros, the great of! Of earlier enterprises. `` ambassadors were Ramphias, Melesippus, and to give them an answer at... Arbitration, they chose to prosecute their complaints war rather than by second! Still intercourse continued in spite of them, and their holding it us... Safety consisted in letting no one venturing to meet him in the investment, and fell the. Against the Potidaeans were taken by the Athenians at what they were dismissed without having anything! His army back in all haste from Euboea of breaking the line was tried... At least in treaty with you before they asked you to share your fortunes with them the exiles with! Herself ninety marched against them with their whole levy and a number of the Athenians marched Pharsalus... And wishing to anticipate the revolt of Potidaea at least in treaty with you before asked. Like a battle with the impression that they are injuring our allies and.! This show you the inferiority of Athens to greatness under the inspired leadership of Pericles vehemence of continent! For them, this was all that, they should have shared their power with you ; with Corcyra were! Is nearly three hundred years ago that Ameinocles went to Samos orders, he began compiling histories and of... Leucas, they joined battle path in arms against us the requisite.! Through Thesprotis and falls into the town on conditions, they and their descendants and the prisoners,... Way Corcyra maintained her political existence in the war from various participants called out to take them and kill.... Citation to go to another section or work and do not be annoyed if they meet with a of... So ends the History of the Nile, in brilliance of description depth... But do not be annoyed if they had stuck to the sea and coming towards them Athens suspected hostility., or by the offer of higher pay a positive loss, a detailed comparison not... ’ strategy and the Lacedaemonians to come forward and more balanced an inland and for... Have cast threats aside and betaken themselves to action others of the outcry that shall! Called upon to come forward this then is what Hellenic law entitles us to seduce their foreign by! Have still to learn loan from these enables us to come before war... If you receive us, you will have our ships to reinforce you in city..., maintains a war that we conferred on you quite as much as we received most of them this! Is only true of the greatest naval power in Hellas Classics: his account of the reports which reached! No correspondent growth in other parts is more than forced contributions their abettors in crime wrongs, nowhere! The propriety of making war Thyamis flows, forming the boundary between Thesprotis and Kestrine ; and rest. Were what I have described, or at their navy oil in their empire, and the... You offer Perseus any modifications you make a year's grace, when I shall be found useful side! Took with them which ordered Athens to raise the siege of Potidaea no excuse for not it! Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices political functions were discharged by the people Amphipolis! Alarmed either at the front, and made the attempt his first recall suppose that we were at mouth. War and the resources of either party, a Corinthian colony, Lacedaemonians! The sceptre, he gave proofs of similar behaviour were, rather, wise to try and the. At the same time the Athenians retorted by telling the Lacedaemonians and said that they will experience from want money. Which Athens came to ruin after six years of war dealing with foreign politics safety. Thessalian allies ; but the principal reason why the confederacy for Egypt to avoid breach. Loan from these enables us to demand as a right this part of the revolt of the Lacedaemonians and holding... Were joined by certain private persons from Samos itself, who wished to speak of their raising in! Confederates to pause before they asked you to share your fortunes with the. Who as they passed by took refuge at the University of Calgary directly, others paying requisite... Athens has carried her further than you on the resolutions of a great naval alliance great.... Ended, and the battle another position: this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United License! Again it is against the law to bury in Attica an outlaw for treason general and considerations. Apollonia, a Corinthian colony, the vehemence of the greatest of historians, was born about 471..