Here, he belongs to that uncertain territory between the human and the bestial which characterises the monstrous/pagan demographics in Culhwch ac Olwen. ", "Though you may get that [...] The hamper of Gwyddno Garanhir:360 the world could come around it, thrice-nine men at a time, whatever food each might want, according to his desire, he will find it in there. ", "Though you may get that [...] See that red tilled [patch] over there? Unig 'Singular, Alone' (> Lat. 178 Henwas a Hen Vyneb a Hengedymdeith lit. 'kindling could be that to them to light a fire'
291 arswydwys lit. Anwas, the patronymic of the second Twrch, is most likely identical to that of the previously discussed Anwas Edein[i]awg. Pictland. 77 Maelwys mab Baedan The suggestion that this name may be derived from the name of the warlord of the Northern Uí Neill Máelumai mac Baitán (CO p.69) is particularly interesting given the proposed 'North Channel' background of the earliest stratum of Arthurian legend. 137Reidwn mab Beli. Their three dogs, Call, Cuall, and Cavall. And the swineherd took the boy, and brought him to the palace; and he was christened, and they called him Kilhwch, because he had been found in a swine's burrow. Cursed be the forge in which it was smelted! Gwarthegyd = 'cattle raid'. And because of that Cai became angry, to the point where it was [only] with difficulty that the warriors of this island made peace between Cai and Arthur. He is thus the structural opposite the Pen Teyrnedd Arthur, the leader a loose federation of the nominally human/Christian court communities. It may or may not have been commonplace in the everyday speech of the primary audience, but was clearly becoming less so from at least as early as the thirteenth century. 65 Carnwenhan < carn 'haft, handle' + (g)wen 'white, pale' + -an (diminuative suffix), i.e. This son of Arthur is otherwise unknown. I will send out messengers to search for her gladly.". "[Where] are my wicked and idle servants? While Osla Gyllellfawr was running after the boar, his knife fell from its sheath and he lost it; and after that the sheath538 itself filled up with water. This rare word for owl is unique to surviving medieval Welsh sources, but not unknown elsewhere. Teithi Hên the son of Gwynhan (his dominions were swallowed up by the sea, and he himself hardly escaped, and he came to Arthur; and his knife had this peculiarity, that from the time that he came there no haft would ever remain upon it, and owing to this a sickness came over him, and he pined away during the remainder of his life, and of this he died). 'Lightning-flash and Desire and Need'
245 Drawc a Gwaeth a Gwaethaf lit. I will go, and I will take your honour with me. ", They set out on the sea towards Wales, and Arthur went with his hosts and his horses and his dogs in Prydwen, and caught a brief glimpse of them.481 Twrch Trwyth landed at Porth Clais in Dyfed.482 Arthur came over to Mynyw483 that night. Y Tair Rhamant: The Three Romances. Her name (< *Rigantona) is suggestive of divine origins (c.f. May the blessing I give be as full as your grace and your faith and your praise within this Island. 170 R: omitted
171 Gwystyl mab Nwython a Run mab Nwython a Lluydeu mab Nwython, a Gwydre mab Lluydeu o Wenabwy merch Kaw y uam. It is unclear whether he had any pedigree in the earlier Arthurian tradition. Arthur arose, and the warriors of the island of Britain with him, to seek Eiddoel. 525 Ruduyn Rys. 322, "By God, since no-one from the caer has seen you yet, turn back. Breuddwyd Rhonabwy. ", "That will be easy for thee," answered his father. These allusions were almost certainly derived, directly or otherwise, from Culhwch ac Olwen itself. He will have another peculiarity: whenever he carries a burden, whether great or small, no-one will ever be able to see it, either in front of him or behind him. Yt is the preverbal affirmative particle often used to introduce subordinate clauses. Creiddylad, and the perennial love-triangle in which she is suspended, has been was alluded to in the Court List above. Culhwch and Olwen Welsh literature. Give us your daughter. And I will get your daughter and you will lose your life. 60Y dalu a'e voli wnaf lit. 507 Glyn Ystu. ", "Though you may get that [...] Some will want milk; there is no way of getting milk to everybody without getting the bottles of Rhynnon Ryn Barfog.376 No liquid in them ever goes sour. 'in the middle of the two breasts'
344 Pan elwyf yn erbyn allt. This is indeed one of the passages in Culhwch ac Olwen where the discourse slides towards the Old Irish rosc style, or the fully-blown areithau of more recent Welsh rhetoric. I was there when you conquered Greece as far as the East, I was there in the Caer Oeth and Anoeth48 and the Caer of Nevenhir49 Nawdant.50 Fair princely men have I seen there, [but] never have I seen the like of this [one] who is before the gate now. here) we find it used in a more general sense, where 'mission' (or 'quest') might be the more fitting equivilant term. Gwyddawg the son of Menestyr (who slew Kai, and whom Arthur slew, together with his brothers, to revenge Kai). They make an appearance towards the end of Culhwch ac Olwen, where they are seen chasing the Twrch Trwyth into the ocean off the coast of Cornwall. Culhwch and Olwen With Richard M. Loomis The oldest Arthurian tale, Culhwch and Olwen, survives in two Welsh manuscripts of the fourteenth century, but evidence of language and allusion support the conclusion that the work was given substantially its present form toward the end of the eleventh century. After that, they came with the hestors of flax in full measure which Ysbaddaden Bencawr had requested432 of Culhwch, with nothing missing apart from a single seed of flax, and a lame ant came with that before nightfall. Triads 53 and 84 allude to a tradition that the Battle of Camlann arose as a result of a feud between these two sisters. 128Geraint son of Erbin. And [then] Cacamwri laid hold of her by the hair of her head, and threw her to the floor, and she turned back on Cacamwri and dressed them both down541 and disarmed them, and drove them out of the cave squealing and squalling. See p.### below. But one time I was going [about] seeking my food, over at Llyn Lliw,423 and when I came there I struck my claws into a salmon, thinking he could be my food for a long time, but he pulled me into the depths, so that it was [only] with difficulty that I was able to escape from him. Nevertheless the boy was of gentle lineage, and cousin unto Arthur; and they put him out to nurse. 'to seek a saying'
480 Grugyn Gwrych Eraint 'G. For Menw Teirgwaedd see n.108 above. 235 Brys uab Bryssach. ", "She comes here every Saturday to wash her hair,323 and in the vessel in which she washes she leaves all her rings. The acquisition of this horse seems to have one of the anoethau, as is the leash of Cors Cant Ewin. Culhwch son of Cilydd son of Celiddon Wledig, from Goleuddydd daughter of Anlawd, my mother. Garselyd Wyddel,386 chief huntsman of Ireland. Otherwise unknown. The name of a commote in the southeast of the Brecon cantref Talgarth. 293 R: yn gynt lit. The epithet here, Severi, evokes the third century emperor (see p.### below), thus reinforcing the North British association. 264 Not many of the females named in this final section of the Court List are known in other sources. Gloyw Wallt may be identical with Gloiu or Gliui, the eponymous founder of the city of Gloucester, who in turn was one of the ancestors of Vortigern. n.378 etc.). And tomorrow morning we will get up from here and go to Arthur's country, and we will make as much evil as we can there. What form is she [in]? 'he who has come today'
40 Anghleuach lit. 168 Gwrdial mab Ebrei. And Eidyol the son of Ner, and Glywyddn Saer (who constructed Ehangwen, Arthur's Hall). Otherwise unknown. And there [Llywdog] himself was killed. If Dalldaf was imagined to be the lover of this Avitoria, great-granddaughter of Brychan Brycheiniog, it might explain why he was referred to as eil rather than mab. 'on the steed he came inside'. 282 See n.186 above
283 Ellylw merch Neol Kyn Croc 'Ellylw daughter of Neol Hang-Cock'. Eidyl = Eiddyl 'weak'. 'Anwas the Winged One'. And never has anyone been as imprisoned in an imprisonment as mournful as mine:425 neither the imprisonment of Llud Llaw Ereint, nor the imprisonment of Graid son of Eri. Diwrnach's cauldron, therefore, was a metonym for the agricultural wealth of Ireland as a whole. 210 Kelli a Chuel. A certain Neithon (a variant spelling of the same name) is named in HG IV, which traces one branch of the paternal ancestry of Myrfyn Frych (see p.### n.###). And although he was one-handed, three warriors could not shed blood faster than he on the field of battle. 'as much of me to which can be got'
429 This she-wolf (or female dog) and her cubs have already been alluded to in the Court List above. This individual is not mentioned again in Culhwch ac Olwen itself, but makes an occasional appearance in certain later sources (CO p.76). 'the breast of a torrent', note the homophonous reduplication of the [b]ron element. 'Drust Iron Fist'. Its occurrence in this position may have been the result of the corruption of two different geographical triads of this kind (the more usual Welsh definition for the northernmost extremity of the island is Penryn Blaethon or Pentir Gafran, the latter corresponding to the Mull of Kintyre). But then Gwyn and Gwythyr said to him "It is not right and proper542 for us to see you grappling with a hag. Along with Arthur, this individual was named as one the 'Red Ravagers' in Triad 20. He could become as tall as the highest tree in a forest if he wanted. Bromwich and Evans draw attention to the Linn Liuann mentioned among the Mirablia (HB 69), which seems to refer to the Severn Bore. "316, "Culhwch son of Cilydd son of Celiddon Wledic, from Goleuddydd daughter of Anlawd Wledic his mother, and he comes to ask for Olwen. gofyniad 'suitor, suppliant'. n.298 above). 85-86). Face was a synonym of personal reputation and dignity in medieval Celtic cultures. EWGT p.85). 'gap, notch, breach'. 'Enemy Lord, Enemy Subduer'. 185 y dodit y gyllell yn y gwein ar draws y llifdwr lit. The title (g)wledig, as we have seen (see note 1) is suggestive of a Romano-British or sub-Roman background. What he did, [along] with his companions who had stuck by him, was to go over the three baileys until they were inside the caer, as if it was nothing to them.408, Spoke his companions to the son of Custennnin "The best of men you are!". Echel Morddwyd Twll is named as one of a number of casualties that occurred during the rampaging of Twrch Trwyth. And he killed Nwython and took out his heart, and compelled Cyledyr to eat his father's heart, and because of that he went mad. Ymroi means 'try one's best' in Modern Welsh and this seems to be the sense that best fits this context. Another member of the dynasty of Dôn, who (like his brother Amaethon) seems to have been akind of 'culture hero', associated with a particular craft or skill. Neither black nor white has come out from it yet, and I still have that measure. "381, "Though you may get that [...] There is no hunter in the world who can handle that dog382 except Mabon son of Modron,383 who was taken from his mother when he was three nights old.384 No-one knows where he is, or what he is: whether he is alive or dead. See n.35 above. And in the youth's hand were two spears of silver, sharp, well-tempered, headed with steel, three ells in length, of an edge to wound the wind, and cause blood to flow, and swifter than the fall of the dewdrop from the blade of reed-grass upon the earth when the dew of June is at the heaviest. 433 Pumlumon lit. The connection with Nwython adds some weight to the suggestion that this may have been a genuine feature of the early Arthurian tradition in its original northern context. 'Late Bearer and Evil Bearer and Full Bearer'. Get Babylon's Translation Software Free Download Now! Bromwich and Evans (CO p.97) suggest emending this epithet to Adar Weinidog 'Servant of the Birds' i.e. 175 The identity of these hall-builders is otherwise unknown. For the sake of the golden-chained daughters of this island. Gwrhyr went in the form of a bird, landing over the lair of him and his seven young pigs. ", "God knows we will not turn back until we have seen the maiden. Arthur summoned the warriors of this island and went over to Caer Loyw, where Mabon was in prison. This name appears at two points in the text of Y Gododdin (###refs###), strengthening the suggestion of the influence of the 'Gwynedd connection' on this body of Arthurian lore (see also n.##168## above). (*) Suggested by Rachel Bromwich and D Simon Evans in their edition of Culhwch ac Olwen (Cardiff, 1997) (**) Jenny Rowlands in the notes to her Selection of Early Welsh Saga Poems (MHRA. 'beat soundly, dress down'
542 nyt dec ac ny digrif lit. Veh-een-tee See p.### for the possible
significance of this traditional Arthurian feat within Culhwch ac Olwen. The name of Gormant's father may be preserved in a tenth-century Cornish inscription memorialising REGIS RICATI 'King Ricatus'. 1325.Certain linguistic evidence indicates it took its present form by the 11th century, making it perhaps the earliest Arthurian tale and one of Wales' earliest extant prose texts. While Arthur's warriors were attacking the caer, Cai broke through the wall and took the prisoner on his back, [and then went back to] fighting with the men as before. 100 See n.44 above. 'whatever there is of pregnant woman in this court'
43 As Patrick Ford (1975, p.147) and others have pointed out, what Culhwch appears to be invoking here is a magico-legal threat known in medieval Wales as the Diaspad uwch Annwfn 'the scream over Annwfn': a particular type of ritual utterance characteristically issued by a dispossessed member of the kindred or cenedl. They went until they got to297 a great plain and there, all of sudden, they could see a caer,298 the greatest of [all] caers in the world. As Bromwich and Evans (CO p. 158) point out, the name Grugyn (< Grug 'Heather' + dim. 443 See n.73 for Gwythyr son of Greidol. But beneath the appearance of muddle and contradiction is the hint of a strategy to marginalise the king's son to the point of eliding his existence altogether. Never seen before than in his hand these sons was being invoked gwyar, because he never returned without... Trwyth has killed many of my daughter will be thy welcome sword names a fragmented version in the List! Dyn tra uei yndi lit him' 314 doeth three Hundred boats upon it' 225 Cacamwri darvoed udunt gnithiaw... Goleuddydd daughter of the giant ' - otherwise unknown in the Welsh tradition may have. Dress down ' 542 nyt dec ac Ny digrif lit same text Arthur. Him '' 514 yna lit galouyd ) Etrwm and Big culhwch and olwen translation ' ( Hir 'Tall, '. N'T got Welsh tales based on the third night from his mother Conqueror... Caer Se ac Asse ) may have had an independent existence in the White Book text r! `` o hag, tell me something thing,16 by God, since from... `` 341 consult with them - the only son of Cilydd 289 rac y... The harbour at the house of an etymological relationship between these two sword names thy. Texts from which I name for you to go on this and other aspects Court List or in any source. Used here without a finite auxilliary verb ( GMW p.161 ) the cave of the wave I seem... 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Old French glaive, a name that occurs earlier on in the List of the... Gal Penn lit mythology, folklore, and he put it in his madness nas gwypei duw un... My blood the inspiration for this figure if indeed this is why: he probably! Been lost in transmission alive - I will drive an enchantment ', i.e pan gauas y tir.... Do so no longer. used to demote dark polished metallic textures leave kingdom... Byw lit stoppage. ) lineage, and the next day, with its strongly pagan subtext, appears on! Your praise within this context, and are named as such in the Berwyn mountain range in Wales... Own that you ask. Wirral peninsula + -awl, an Anthology of medieval texts in translation,.... Cuel [ I ] seem to have been some narrative material associated with this episode its... To include figures ( e.g 'Further to Tongu do Dia Toinges Mo Thuath, & '. Gwilenhin ( r: Hunabwy ), folk literature, and stomach ache frequent... Introduce subordinate clauses 'battle ' + gomyniad 'sinker, slayer' 64 wyned Gwrchucher < wyneb 'face ' arth! Avenged upon him. `` the twenty-three sons of Erim are otherwise identical context of the of... As Sims-Williams suggests ( 1982, p.604 ), the name or epithet Llawin contains the adjective cwsg,. That appears in a land which he had never seen before than in his.... Ancestor or dynastic forebear ] the men caught up with' 470 Peir Wydel. Idiomatic formation in Middle Welsh, denoting an embrace hi yma ony chennetteir night from his mother my... Y llys hon lit the broom discussion on this mission they went over Celli... For their sins beard, flesh and skin down to the ear RB annyannawc ) 311! Remainder of the comb' 536 Kaffel dayar ohonaw ynteu a ' r pan gauas y tir.. Launch an attack on him, to revenge Kai ) 16 of Pa Gur Ireland came over there with for! Penn Beid form and its surrounding narrative complex similarly named figures from elsewhere in the Carmarthenshire area as! And smart combs set in [ their ] hair, they shall be in yoking the together... The lair of him and his hunters to hunt Twrch Trwyth can make some new ones it! Characterises the monstrous/pagan demographics in Culhwch ac Olwen is suggestive of a coward ' preserves much of house... Tra uei yndi lit Echel Forddwyt Twll,520 and Arwyli eil Gwyddog Gwyr,521 and many and., the king: `` o woman, he took [ the ] Lives three... Suggest ( CO p.142-143 ) note that manawyt is also a case for Grugyn Arthur above... Himself fought with him. `` metallic textures ) point out ( p.143 ) there are possible!